Summons: Registered or certified mail. Whenever service by registered or certified mail or other public means by which a return receipt may be requested is authorized, the clerk of the court or a governmental agent under Rule 4. In his return the clerk of the court or the governmental agent shall show the date and place of mailing, a copy of the mailed or electronically-transmitted return receipt if and when received by him showing whether the mailing was accepted or returned, and, if accepted, by whom.
The return along with the receipt shall be promptly filed by the clerk with the pleadings and become a part of the record. If a mailing by the clerk of the court is returned without acceptance, the clerk shall reissue the summons and complaint for service as requested, by the person seeking service.
Whenever service is made by delivering a copy to a person personally or by leaving a copy at his dwelling house or place of employment as provided by Rule 4. Service shall be effective if made by a person not otherwise authorized by these rules, but proof of service by such a person must be made by him as a witness or by deposition without allowance of expenses therefor as costs.
The person to whom the summons is delivered for service must act promptly and exercise reasonable care to cause service to be made. A sheriff, his deputy, or any full-time state or municipal police officer may serve summons in any county of this state if he agrees or has agreed to make the service. When specially requested in the praecipe for summons, the complaint and summons shall be delivered to such officer by the clerk or the attorney for the person seeking service. In no event shall any expenses agreed upon under this provision be assessed or recovered as costs or affect court costs otherwise imposed for regular service.
A summons may be served in any county in this state. If service is to be made in another county, the summons may be issued by the clerk for service therein to the sheriff of such county or to a person authorized to make service by these rules. Personal service, when permitted by these rules to be made outside the state, may be made there by any disinterested person or by the attorney representing the person seeking such service.
The expenses of such person may be assessed as costs only if they are reasonable and if service by mail or other public means cannot be made or is not successful. In any action where notice by publication is permitted by these rules or by statute, service may be made by publication. Summons by publication may name all the persons to be served, and separate publications with respect to each party shall not be required. The person seeking such service, or his attorney, shall submit his request therefor upon the praecipe for summons along with supporting affidavits that diligent search has been made that the defendant cannot be found, has concealed his whereabouts, or has left the state, and shall prepare the contents of the summons to be published.
The summons shall be signed by the clerk of the court or the sheriff in such manner as to indicate that it is made by his authority. The summons shall contain the following information:. A description of any property, relationship, or other res involved in the action, and a statement that the person being sued claims some interest therein;. The summons shall be published three  times by the clerk or person making it, the first publication promptly and each two  succeeding publications at least seven  and not more than fourteen  days after the prior publication, in a newspaper authorized by law to publish notices, and published in the county where the complaint or action is filed, where the res is located, or where the defendant resides or where he was known last to reside.
If no newspaper is published in the county, then the summons shall be published in the county in this state nearest thereto in which any such paper may be printed, or in a place specially ordered by the court. The person seeking the service or his attorney may designate any qualified newspaper, and if he fails to do so, the selection may be made by the clerk. Service of summons by publication shall be made and procured by the clerk, by a person appointed by the court for that purpose, or by the clerk or sheriff of another county where publication is to be made.
The clerk or person making the service shall prepare the return and include the following:. The return and affidavits shall be filed with the pleadings and other papers in the case and shall become a part of the record as provided in these rules. Upon application of any party the court in which any action is pending may make an appropriate order for service in a manner not provided by these rules or statutes when such service is reasonably calculated to give the defendant actual knowledge of the proceedings and an opportunity to be heard.
The person making service shall promptly make his return upon or attach it to a copy of the summons which shall be delivered to the clerk. The return shall be signed by the person making it, and shall include a statement:. The return, along with the summons to which it is attached or is a part, the praecipe for summons, affidavits furnished with the summons or praecipe for summons, and all other affidavits permitted by these rules shall be filed by the clerk with the pleadings and other papers in the case and thereupon shall become a part of the record, and have such evidentiary effect as is now provided by law.
The clerk shall enter a filing date upon every praecipe, pleading, return, summons, affidavit or other paper filed with or entered of record by him. The clerk shall also enter an issuance date upon any summons issued, mailed or delivered by him, or other communication served or transmitted by him under these rules. Such filing or issuance date shall constitute evidence of the date of filing or issuance without further authentication when entered in the court records, or when the paper or a copy thereof is otherwise properly offered or admitted into evidence.
A written admission stating the date and place of service, signed by the person being served, may be filed with the clerk who shall file it with the pleadings. Such admission shall become a part of the record, constitute evidence of proper service, and shall be allowed as evidence in any action or proceeding.
At any time in its discretion and upon such terms as it deems just, the court may allow any process or proof of service thereof to be amended unless it clearly appears that material prejudice would result to the substantial rights of the person against whom the process is issued. No summons or the service thereof shall be set aside or be adjudged insufficient when either is reasonably calculated to inform the person to be served that an action has been instituted against him, the name of the court, and the time within which he is required to respond.
Any person willfully violating any provision of this rule may be subjected to contempt proceedings. Rules 4 through 4. Unless otherwise provided by these rules or an order of the court, each party and special judge, if any, shall be served with:. No service need be made on parties in default for failure to appear, except that pleadings asserting new or additional claims for relief against them shall be served upon them in the manner provided by service of summons in Rule 4.
Whenever a party is represented by an attorney of record, service shall be made upon such attorney unless service upon the party is ordered by the court. Service upon the attorney or party shall be made by delivering or mailing a copy of the papers to the last known address, or where service is by FAX or e-mail, by faxing or e-mailing a copy of the documents to the fax number or e-mail address set out in the appearance form or correction as required by Rule 3.
Refusal to accept an offered or tendered document is a waiver of any objection to the sufficiency or adequacy of service of that document;. If service is made by mail, the papers shall be deposited in the United States mail addressed to the person on whom they are being served, with postage prepaid. Service shall be deemed complete upon mailing.
Proof of service of all papers permitted to be mailed may be made by written acknowledgment of service, by affidavit of the person who mailed the papers, or by certificate of an attorney. It shall be the duty of attorneys when entering their appearance in a cause or when filing pleadings or papers therein, to have noted in the Chronological Case Summary or said pleadings or papers so filed the address and telephone number of their office. Service by delivery or by mail at such address shall be deemed sufficient and complete. The Clerk may transmit notice of all rulings, orders, or judgments required by Trial Rule 72 D by e-mail to all parties represented by attorneys and to all unrepresented parties who have supplied the Court with an e-mail address for service.
Where a copy of a written ruling, order, or judgment is being transmitted by e-mail, service may be made by including a link to the document or by attaching the document being served to the e-mail in. A party who has consented to service by FAX or e-mail may be served by attaching the document being served to an e-mail in. Discovery documents must also be served in accordance with Trial Rule 26 A.
Service by FAX or e-mail shall be deemed complete upon transmission. Service that occurs on a Saturday, Sunday, a legal holiday, or a day the court or agency in which the matter is pending is closed, or after p. An attorney or unrepresented party tendering a document to the Clerk for filing shall certify that service has been made, list the parties served, and specify the date and means of service.
The certificate of service shall be placed at the end of the document and shall not be separately filed. The separate filing of a certificate of service, however, shall not be grounds for rejecting a document for filing. The Clerk may permit documents to be filed without a certificate of service but shall require prompt filing of a separate certificate of service.
In any action in which there are unusually large numbers of defendants, the court, upon motion or of its own initiative, may order. A copy of every such order shall be served upon the parties in such manner and form as the court directs. The filing of pleadings, motions, and other papers with the court as required by these rules shall be made by one of the following methods:. Filing by registered or certified mail and by third-party commercial carrier shall be complete upon mailing or deposit.
Any party filing any paper by any method other than personal delivery to the clerk shall retain proof of filing. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, by order of the court, or by any applicable statute, the day of the act, event, or default from which the designated period of time begins to run shall not be included. The last day of the period so computed is to be included unless it is:.
In any event, the period runs until the end of the next day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday, a legal holiday, or a day on which the office is closed. When the period of time allowed is less than seven  days, intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, legal holidays, and days on which the office is closed shall be excluded from the computations. When an act is required or allowed to be done at or within a specific time by these rules, the court may at any time for cause shown:.
A responsive pleading required under these rules, shall be served within twenty  days after service of the prior pleading. Unless the court specifies otherwise, a reply shall be served within twenty  days after entry of an order requiring it. The service of a motion permitted under Rule 12 alters the time for service of responsive pleadings as follows, unless a different time is fixed by the court:.
A written motion, other than one which may be heard ex parte, and notice of the hearing thereof shall be served not less than five  days before the time specified for the hearing, unless a different period is fixed by these rules or by order of the court.
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Such an order may, for cause shown, be made on ex parte application. When a motion is supported by affidavit, the affidavit shall be served with the motion; and, except as otherwise provided in Rule 59 D , opposing affidavits may be served not less than one  day before the hearing, unless the court permits them to be served at some other time.
Whenever a party has the right or is required to do some act or take some proceedings within a prescribed period after the service of a notice or other paper upon him and the notice or paper is served upon him by United States mail, three  days shall be added to the prescribed period.
No cause for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation shall be tried or heard by any court until after the expiration of sixty 60 days from the date of the filing of the petition or from the date of the publication of the first notice to a nonresident. No other pleadings shall be allowed; but the court may, in its discretion, order a reply to an answer or third-party answer. Matters formerly required to be pleaded by a reply or other subsequent pleading may be proved even though they are not pleaded.
Unless made during a hearing or trial, or otherwise ordered by the court, an application to the court for an order shall be made by written motion. The motion shall state the grounds therefor and the relief or order sought. The requirement of notice is satisfied by service of the motion. Demurrers, pleas in abatement, and exceptions for insufficiency of a pleading or improper service shall not be used. All objections and defenses formerly raised by such motions shall now be raised pursuant to Rule To state a claim for relief, whether an original claim, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party claim, a pleading must contain:.
Relief in the alternative or of several different types may be demanded.
However, in any complaint seeking damages for personal injury or death, or seeking punitive damages, no dollar amount or figure shall be included in the demand. If in good faith the pleader intends to deny all the averments in the preceding pleading, he may do so by general denial subject to the provisions of Rule If he does not intend a general denial, he may:.
If he lacks knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of an averment, he shall so state and his statement shall be considered a denial. If in good faith a pleader intends to deny only a part or a qualification of an averment, he shall specify so much of it as is true and material and deny the remainder.
All denials shall fairly meet the substance of the averments denied. This rule shall have no application to uncontested actions for divorce, or to answers required to be filed by clerks or guardians ad litem. A responsive pleading shall set forth affirmatively and carry the burden of proving: accord and satisfaction, arbitration and award, discharge in bankruptcy, duress, estoppel, failure of consideration, fraud, illegality, injury by fellow servant, laches, license, payment, release, res judicata, statute of frauds, statute of limitations, waiver, lack of jurisdiction over the subject-matter, lack of jurisdiction over the person, improper venue, insufficiency of process or service of process, the same action pending in another state court of this state, and any other matter constituting an avoidance, matter of abatement, or affirmative defense.
A party required to affirmatively plead any matters, including matters formerly required to be pleaded affirmatively by reply, shall have the burden of proving such matters. The burden of proof imposed by this or any other provision of these rules is subject to the rules of evidence or any statute fixing a different rule.
If the pleading mistakenly designates a defense as a counterclaim or a counterclaim as a defense, the court shall treat the pleading as if there had been a proper designation. Averments in a pleading to which a responsive pleading is required, except those pertaining to amount of damages, are admitted when not denied in the responsive pleading. Averments in a pleading to which no responsive pleading is required or permitted shall be taken as denied or avoided.
No technical forms of pleading or motions are required. All fictions in pleading are abolished. When two  or more statements are made in the alternative and one  of them if made independently would be sufficient, the pleading is not made insufficient by the insufficiency of one or more of the alternative statements. A pleading may also state as many separate claims or defenses as the pleader has regardless of consistency and whether based on legal or equitable grounds.
All statements shall be made subject to the obligations set forth in Rule All motions and pleadings of any kind addressed to two  or more paragraphs of any pleading, or filed by two  or more parties, shall be taken and construed as joint, separate, and several motions or pleadings to each of such paragraphs and by and against each of such parties. All motions or pleadings containing two  or more subject-matters shall be taken and construed as separate and several as to each subject-matter.
All objections to rulings made by two  or more parties shall be taken and construed as the joint, separate, and several objections of each of such parties. A complaint filed by or against two  or more plaintiffs shall be taken and construed as joint, separate, and several as to each of said plaintiffs. All pleadings shall be so construed as to do substantial justice, lead to disposition on the merits, and avoid litigation of procedural points.
It is not necessary to aver the capacity of a party to sue or be sued, the authority of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity, or the legal existence of an organization that is made a party. The burden of proving lack of such capacity, authority, or legal existence shall be upon the person asserting lack of it, and shall be pleaded as an affirmative defense. In all averments of fraud or mistake, the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake shall be specifically averred.
Malice, intent, knowledge, and other conditions of mind may be averred generally. In pleading the performance or occurrence of promissory or non-promissory conditions precedent, it is sufficient to aver generally that all conditions precedent have been performed, have occurred, or have been excused. A denial of performance or occurrence shall be made specifically and with particularity, and a denial of excuse generally.
In pleading an official document or official act it is sufficient to aver that the document was issued or the act done in compliance with law. In pleading a judgment or decision of a domestic or foreign court, judicial or quasi-judicial tribunal, or of a board or officer, it is sufficient to aver the judgment or decision without setting forth matter showing jurisdiction to render it. For the purpose of testing the sufficiency of a pleading, averments of time and place are material and shall be considered like all other averments of material matter. However, time and place need be stated only with such specificity as will enable the opposing party to prepare his defense.
When items of special damage are claimed, they shall be specifically stated. The relief granted to the plaintiff, if there be no answer, cannot exceed the relief demanded in his complaint; but, in any other case, the court may grant him any relief consistent with the facts or matters pleaded. In all claims alleging negligence, the burden of pleading and proving contributory negligence, assumption of risk, or incurred risk shall be upon the defendant who may plead such by denial of the allegation.
Res ipsa loquitur or a similar doctrine may be pleaded by alleging generally that the facts connected with the action are unknown to the pleader and are within the knowledge of the opposing party. When an action or defense is founded upon a written contract or release, lack of consideration for the promise or release is an affirmative defense, and the party asserting lack of it carries the burden of proof. When the rights of a person depend upon his status as a bona fide purchaser for value or upon similar requirements, such status must be pleaded and proved by the person asserting it, but it may be pleaded in general terms.
Once it is established that the person has given any required value, unless such value is commercially unreasonable, and that he has met any requirements of recordation, filing, possession, or perfection, the trier of fact must find that such value was given or such perfection was made in accordance with any requirements of good faith, lack of knowledge, or lack of notice unless and until evidence is introduced which would support a finding of its non-existence.
Neither presumptions of law nor matters of which judicial notice may be taken need be stated in a pleading. In an action to recover the possession of property distrained while doing damage, an answer that the defendant, or person by whose command he acted, was lawfully possessed of the real property upon which the distress was made, and that the property distrained was at the time doing damage thereon, shall be good without setting forth the title of such real property.
When any pleading allowed by these rules is founded on a written instrument, the original, or a copy thereof, must be included in or filed with the pleading. Such instrument, whether copied in the pleadings or not, shall be taken as part of the record. When any pleading allowed by these rules is founded on an account, an Affidavit of Debt in a form substantially similar to that which is provided in Appendix A-2 to these rules, shall be attached. When a pleading is founded on a written instrument and the instrument or a copy thereof is included in or filed with the pleading, execution of such instrument, indorsement, or assignment shall be deemed to be established and the instrument, if otherwise admissible, shall be deemed admitted into evidence in the action without proving its execution unless execution be denied under oath in the responsive pleading or by an affidavit filed therewith.
A denial asserting that another person who is not a party did execute the instrument, indorsement, or assignment may be made without such oath or affidavit only if the pleader alleges under oath or in an accompanying affidavit that after the exercise of reasonable diligence he was unable to make such person or his representative subdivision H a party, the reason therefor, and that he is without information as to such execution.
An oath or affidavit denying execution as required and made under subdivision B of this rule shall be made upon the personal knowledge of the person making it, and, if general in form Rule 11 B , shall be deemed to be made upon such personal knowledge. The ultimate burden of proving the execution of a written instrument is upon the party claiming its validity, but execution is presumed. When a copy of a written instrument is filed with or copied in the pleadings under the provisions of this rule, the pleader shall permit inspection of the original unless it is alleged that the original is lost, whether by destruction, theft or otherwise, or unless it is alleged or established that the instrument is in the possession of another person and out of the control of the pleader or that the duty to allow inspection is otherwise excused.
The pleader shall allow inspection promptly upon request of a party, and inspection may be ordered by the court upon motion without a hearing at any time. A party failing to comply with such request or such order shall be subject to the provisions of Rule 37 B. Non-compliance with the provisions of this rule requiring a written instrument or an Affidavit of Debt to be included with the pleading may be raised by the first responsive pleading or prior motion of a party.
The court, in its sound discretion, may order compliance, the reasons for non-compliance to be added to the pleadings, or allow the action to continue without further pleading. Amendments to correct the omission of a required written instrument, an assignment or indorsement thereof, the omission of a denial of the execution of a written instrument as permitted or required by this rule, or an Affidavit of Debt shall be governed by Rule 15, except as provided by subdivision A of this rule.
The requirement of this rule that execution of a written instrument be denied under oath or otherwise, shall not apply against a party who is not required to file a responsive pleading, or against a party who, at the time the responsive pleading is due or before the pleadings are closed, is or becomes dead, an infant or adjudicated incompetent or is the representative of such person or of a person who is dead, an infant, an adjudicated incompetent, or in insolvency proceedings. Such parties shall be deemed to have denied execution or admissibility without any responsive pleading or denial.
The presumption of execution as provided in subdivision D of this rule shall not apply to establish execution of a written instrument by a person who, at the time proof is required, is dead, an infant or adjudicated incompetent. Every pleading shall contain a caption setting forth the name of the court, the title of the action, the file number, and a designation as in Rule 7 A.
In the complaint the title of the action shall include the names of all the parties, but in other pleadings it is sufficient to state the name of the first party on each side with an appropriate indication of other parties. All averments of a claim or defense shall be made in numbered paragraphs, the contents of each of which shall be limited as far as practicable to a statement of a single set of circumstances, and a paragraph may be referred to by number in all succeeding pleadings.
Each claim founded upon a separate transaction or occurrence and each defense other than denials may be stated in a separate count or defense whenever a separation facilitates the clear presentation of the matters set forth. Statements in a pleading may be adopted by reference in a different part of the same pleading or in another pleading or in any motion. A copy of any written instrument which is an exhibit to a pleading is a part thereof for all purposes. Every pleading or motion of a party represented by an attorney shall be signed by at least one  attorney of record in his individual name, whose address, telephone number, and attorney number shall be stated, except that this provision shall not apply to pleadings and motions made and transcribed at the trial or a hearing before the judge and received by him in such form.
A party who is not represented by an attorney shall sign his pleading and state his address. Except when specifically required by rule, pleadings or motions need not be verified or accompanied by affidavit. The rule in equity that the averments of an answer under oath must be overcome by the testimony of two  witnesses or of one  witness sustained by corroborating circumstances is abolished. The signature of an attorney constitutes a certificate by him that he has read the pleadings; that to the best of his knowledge, information, and belief, there is good ground to support it; and that it is not interposed for delay.
If a pleading or motion is not signed or is signed with intent to defeat the purpose of the rule, it may be stricken as sham and false and the action may proceed as though the pleading had not been served. For a willful violation of this rule an attorney may be subjected to appropriate disciplinary action.
Similar action may be taken if scandalous or indecent matter is inserted. When in connection with any civil or special statutory proceeding it is required that any pleading, motion, petition, supporting affidavit, or other document of any kind, be verified, or that an oath be taken, it shall be sufficient if the subscriber simply affirms the truth of the matter to be verified by an affirmation or representation in substantially the following language:. Any person who falsifies an affirmation or representation of fact shall be subject to the same penalties as are prescribed by law for the making of a false affidavit.
When such pleadings, motions and affidavits are verified or under oath they shall not require other or greater proof on the part of the adverse party than if not verified or not under oath unless expressly provided otherwise by these rules, statute or other law. Affidavits upon motions for summary judgment under Rule 56 and in denial of execution under Rule 9. The time allowed for the presentation of defenses and objections in a motion or responsive pleading shall be computed pursuant to the provisions of Rule 6 C. Every defense, in law or fact, to a claim for relief in any pleading, whether a claim, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party claim, shall be asserted in the responsive pleading thereto if one is required; except that at the option of the pleader, the following defenses may be made by motion:.
The disposition of this motion shall be consistent with Trial Rule 75,. A motion making any of these defenses shall be made before pleading if a further pleading is permitted or within twenty  days after service of the prior pleading if none is required. If a pleading sets forth a claim for relief to which the adverse party is not required to serve a responsive pleading, any of the defenses in section B 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 or 8 is waived to the extent constitutionally permissible unless made in a motion within twenty  days after service of the prior pleading.
No defense or objection is waived by being joined with one or more other defenses or objections in a responsive pleading or motion. If, on a motion, asserting the defense number 6 , to dismiss for failure of the pleading to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, matters outside the pleading are presented to and not excluded by the court, the motion shall be treated as one for summary judgment and disposed of as provided in Rule In such case, all parties shall be given reasonable opportunity to present all material made pertinent to such a motion by Rule After the pleadings are closed but within such time as not to delay the trial, any party may move for judgment on the pleadings.
If, on a motion for judgment on the pleadings, matters outside the pleadings are presented to and not excluded by the court, the motion shall be treated as one for summary judgment and disposed of as provided in Rule 56, and all parties shall be given reasonable opportunity to present all material made pertinent to such a motion by Rule Whether made in a pleading or by motion, the defenses specifically enumerated 1 to 8 in subdivision B of this rule, and the motion for judgment on the pleadings mentioned in subdivision C of this rule shall, upon application of any party or by order of court, be determined before trial unless substantial justice requires the court to defer hearing until trial.
If a pleading to which a responsive pleading is permitted is so vague or ambiguous that a party cannot reasonably be required to frame a responsive pleading, he may move for a more definite statement before interposing his responsive pleading. The motion shall point out the defects complained of and the details desired.
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If the motion is granted and the order of the court is not obeyed within twenty  days after notice of the order or within such other time as the court may fix, the court may strike the pleading to which the motion was directed or make such order as it deems just. A party who makes a motion under this rule may join with it any other motions herein provided for and then available to him. If a party makes a motion under this rule but omits therefrom any defense or objection then available to him which this rule permits to be raised by motion, he shall not thereafter make a motion based on the defense or objection so omitted.
He may, however, make such motions as are allowed under subdivision H 2 of this rule. Counterclaim and cross-claim. But the pleader need not state the claim if:. A counterclaim may or may not diminish or defeat the recovery sought by the opposing party. It may claim relief exceeding in amount or different in kind from that sought in the pleading of the opposing party.
This rule shall not be construed to enlarge any right to assert a claim against the state. A claim which either matured or was acquired by the pleader after serving his pleading may, with the permission of the court, be presented as a counterclaim by supplemental pleading.
When a pleader fails to set up a counterclaim through oversight, inadvertence, or excusable neglect, or when justice requires, he may by leave of court set up the counterclaim by amendment. A pleading may state as a cross-claim any claim by one party against a co-party. Persons other than those made parties to the original action may be made parties to a counterclaim or cross-claim in accordance with the provisions of Rules 14, 19 and If the court orders separate trials as provided in Rule 42 B , judgment on a counterclaim or cross-claim may be rendered in accordance with the terms of Rule 54 B when the court has jurisdiction so to do, even if the claims of the opposing party have been dismissed or otherwise disposed of.
In determining whether or not separate trial of a cross-claim shall be ordered, the court shall consider whether the cross-claim:. In addition, the court may consider any other relevant factors. The statute of limitations, a nonclaim statute or other discharge at law shall not bar a claim asserted as a counterclaim to the extent that:.
A counterclaim may be asserted by or against the transferee or successor of a claim subject to the following provisions:. A claim owing by his predecessor may be interposed against any claim brought by such successor in or outside the court of administration without the necessity of filing such claim or cause of action in the administration proceedings. Counterclaim and cross-claims are subject to restrictions imposed by other statutes and principles of substantive common law and equity, including rules of commercial law, agency, estoppel, contract and the like.
In appropriate cases the court may impose terms or conditions upon its judgment or decree and may enter conditional or noncanceling cross judgments to satisfy such restrictions. This provision is intended to deny or limit counterclaims or cross-claims:. Satisfaction of a judgment or credits thereon may be ordered, for sufficient cause, upon notice and motion. The third-party plaintiff must file the third-party complaint with his original answer or by leave of court thereafter with good cause shown. The person served with the summons and the third-party complaint, hereinafter called the third-party defendant, as provided in Rules 12 and 13 may make:.
The plaintiff may assert any claim against the third-party defendant who thereupon may assert his defenses, counterclaims and cross-claims, as provided in Rules 12 and A third-party defendant may proceed under this rule against any person not a party to the action who is or may be liable to him for all or part of the claim made in the action against the third-party defendant. When a counterclaim or other claim is asserted against a plaintiff, he may cause a third party to be brought in under circumstances, which, under this rule, would entitle a defendant to do so.
With his responsive pleading or by motion prior thereto, any party may move for severance of a third-party claim or ensuing claim as provided in this rule or for a separate trial thereon. If the third-party defendant is a proper party to the proceedings under any other rule relating to parties, the action shall continue as in other cases where he is made a party. A party may amend his pleading once as a matter of course at any time before a responsive pleading is served or, if the pleading is one to which no responsive pleading is permitted, and the action has not been placed upon the trial calendar, he may so amend it at any time within thirty  days after it is served.
Otherwise a party may amend his pleading only by leave of court or by written consent of the adverse party; and leave shall be given when justice so requires. A party shall plead in response to an amended pleading within the time remaining for response to the original pleading or within twenty  days after service of the amended pleading, whichever period may be the longer, unless the court otherwise orders.
When issues not raised by the pleadings are tried by express or implied consent of the parties, they shall be treated in all respects as if they had been raised in the pleadings. Such amendment of the pleadings as may be necessary to cause them to conform to the evidence and to raise these issues may be made upon motion of any party at any time, even after judgment, but failure so to amend does not affect the result of the trial of these issues. If evidence is objected to at the trial on the ground that it is not within the issues made by the pleadings, the court may allow the pleadings to be amended and shall do so freely when the presentation of the merits of the action will be subserved thereby and the objecting party fails to satisfy the court that the admission of such evidence would prejudice him in maintaining his action or defense upon the merits.
The court may grant a continuance to enable the objecting party to meet such evidence. Whenever the claim or defense asserted in the amended pleading arose out of the conduct, transaction, or occurrence set forth or attempted to be set forth in the original pleading, the amendment relates back to the date of the original pleading. An amendment changing the party against whom a claim is asserted relates back if the foregoing provision is satisfied and, within one hundred and twenty days of commencement of the action, the party to be brought in by amendment:. The requirement of subsections 1 and 2 hereof with respect to a governmental organization to be brought into the action as defendant is satisfied:.
Upon motion of a party the court may, upon reasonable notice and upon such terms as are just, permit him to serve a supplemental pleading setting forth transactions or occurrences or events which have happened since the date of the pleading sought to be supplemented. Permission may be granted even though the original pleading is defective in its statement of a claim for relief or defense.
If the court deems it advisable that the adverse party plead to the supplemental pleading, it shall so order, specifying the time therefor. In any action except criminal cases, the court may in its discretion and shall upon the motion of any party, direct the attorneys for the parties to appear before it for a conference to consider:. Unless otherwise ordered by the court the pre-trial conference shall not be called until after reasonable opportunity for the completion of discovery.
At least one  attorney planning to take part in the trial shall appear for each of the parties and participate in the pre-trial conference. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, at least ten  days prior to the pre-trial conference, attorneys for each of the parties shall meet and confer for the following purposes:. Each attorney shall mark for identification and provide opposing counsel an opportunity to inspect and copy all exhibits which he expects to introduce at the trial.
Exhibits of the character which prohibit or make impracticable their production at conference shall be identified and notice given of their intended use. Necessary arrangements must be made to afford opposing counsel an opportunity to examine such exhibits. Written stipulations shall be prepared with reference to all exhibits exchanged or identified. The stipulations shall contain all agreements of the parties with reference to the exchanged and identified exhibits, and shall include, but not be limited to, the agreement of the parties with reference to the authenticity of the exhibits, their admissibility in evidence, their use in opening statements, and the provisions made for the inspection of identified exhibits.
The original of the exhibit stipulations shall be presented to the court at the pre-trial conference. The attorneys shall stipulate in writing with reference to all facts and issues not in genuine dispute. The original of the stipulations shall be presented to the court at the time of the pre-trial conference. Attorneys for each of the parties shall furnish opposing counsel with the written list of the names and addresses of all witnesses then known.
The original of each witness list shall be presented to the court at the time of the pre-trial conference. The possibility of compromise settlement shall be fully discussed and explored. Each attorney shall completely familiarize himself with all aspects of the case in advance of the conference of attorneys and be prepared to enter into stipulations with reference to as many facts and issues and exhibits as possible.
It shall be the duty of counsel for both plaintiff and defendant to arrange for the conference of attorneys at least ten  days in advance of the pre-trial conference. If, following the conference of attorneys, either party determines that there are other facts or exhibits that should be stipulated and which opposing counsel refuses to stipulate upon, he shall compile a list of such facts or exhibits and furnish same to opposing counsel at least two  days in advance of the pre-trial conference.
The original of the list shall be presented to the court at the time of the pre-trial conference. If, after the conference of the attorneys and before the pre-trial conference, counsel discovers additional exhibits or names of additional witnesses, the same information required to be disclosed at the conference of the attorneys shall be immediately furnished opposing counsel. The original of any such disclosures shall be presented to the court at the time of the pre-trial conference.
If necessary or advisable, the court may adjourn the pre-trial conference from time to time or may order an additional pre-trial conference. If, following the pre-trial conference or during trial, counsel discovers additional exhibits or the names of additional witnesses, the same information required to be disclosed at the conference between attorneys shall be immediately furnished opposing counsel.
The original of any such disclosure shall immediately be filed with the court and shall indicate the date it was furnished opposing counsel. The court shall make an order which recites the action taken at the conference, the amendments allowed to the pleading, and the agreements made by the parties as to any of the matters considered which limit the issues for trial to those not disposed of by admissions or agreement of counsel, and such order when entered shall control the subsequent course of action, unless modified thereafter to prevent manifest injustice.
The court in its discretion may establish by rule a pre-trial calendar on which actions may be placed for consideration as above provided, and may either confine the calendar to jury actions or non-jury actions or extend it to all actions. If without just excuse or because of failure to give reasonable attention to the matter, no appearance is made on behalf of a party at a pre-trial conference, or if an attorney is grossly unprepared to participate in the conference, the court may order either one or both of the following:.
Every action shall be prosecuted in the name of the real party in interest. No action shall be dismissed on the ground that it is not prosecuted in the name of the real party in interest until a reasonable time after objection has been allowed for the real party in interest to ratify the action, or to be joined or substituted in the action.
Such ratification, joinder, or substitution shall have the same effect as if the action had been commenced initially in the name of the real party in interest. The capacity of a party to sue or be sued shall be determined by the law of this state, including its conflicts rules, except that a partnership or unincorporated association may sue or be sued in its common name.
An infant or incompetent person may sue or be sued in any action:. The court, upon its own motion or upon the motion of any party, must notify and allow the representative named in subsection 3 of this subdivision, if he is known, to represent an infant or incompetent person, and be joined as an additional party in his representative capacity.
If an infant or incompetent person is not represented, or is not adequately represented, the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for him. The court may, in its discretion, appoint a guardian ad litem or an attorney for persons who are institutionalized, who are not yet born or in being, who are unknown, who are known but cannot be located, or who are in such position that they cannot procure reasonable representation.
The court shall make such other orders as it deems proper for the protection of such parties or persons. Persons with claims against the estate of the ward or against the guardian of his estate as such may proceed under this rule or provisions applicable to guardianship proceedings. It shall not be necessary that the person for whom guardianship is sought shall be represented by a guardian ad litem in such proceedings.
Nothing herein shall affect the right of a guardian to sue or be sued in his personal capacity. A next friend or guardian under subsection C of this rule may be required by the court to furnish bond or additional bond and shall be subject to the rules applicable to guardians of the estate with respect to duties, terms of the bond required, accounting, compensation and termination. For the purposes of suing or being sued there shall be no distinction between men and women or between men and women because of marital or parental status; provided, however, that this subdivision D shall not apply to actions in tort.
A partnership or an unincorporated association may sue or be sued in its common name. A judgment by or against the partnership or unincorporated association shall bind the organization as if it were an entity. A money judgment against the partnership or unincorporated association shall not bind an individual partner or member unless he is named as a party or is bound as a member of a class in an appropriate action Rules 23 and When the name or existence of a person is unknown, he may be named as an unknown party, and when his true name is discovered his name may be inserted by amendment at any time.
Parties: State as party--Attorney general. If in any action or proceeding involving real property, instituted in any court of this state, it appears from the allegations of any pleading filed therein that the state of Indiana has, or claims to have a lien upon or an interest in such real estate, the state may be made a party defendant to the action, and shall be bound by any judgment or decree rendered thereon.
Service of summons shall be made upon the Attorney General as provided in Rule 4. It shall be the duty of the Attorney General, in person or by deputy to appear and defend such proceedings or suit, on behalf of the state of Indiana. The Attorney General may, in his discretion, designate the prosecuting attorney of the circuit in which such action is pending as his deputy for the purpose of defending such proceedings or suit on behalf of the state of Indiana.
After the prosecuting attorney enters his appearance as such deputy, pleadings under Rule 5 shall be served upon him for and on behalf of the Attorney General. The state may appeal from such judgment or decree, in like manner and under the same terms and conditions as other parties in like cases. This rule is meant, without limitation, to apply to actions to foreclose a mortgage or other lien on real estate, to subject any real estate to sale, or to partition or quiet title to real estate.
Further, in any case in which the Attorney General represents the State of Indiana, the judge presiding in the case where such cause is pending, shall promptly notify the Attorney General by United States mail, addressed to his office in Indianapolis, Indiana, of any ruling made in such cause or of the fixing of a date for the trial thereof.
A party asserting a claim for relief as an original claim, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party claim, may join, either as independent or as alternate claims, as many claims, whether legal, equitable, or statutory as he has against an opposing party. Whenever a claim is one heretofore cognizable only after another claim has been prosecuted to a conclusion, the two  claims may be joined in a single action; but the court shall grant relief in that action only in accordance with the relative substantive rights of the parties.
In particular, a plaintiff may state a claim for money and a claim to have set aside a conveyance fraudulent as to him, without first having obtained a judgment establishing the claim for money. A person who is subject to service of process shall be joined as a party in the action if:. If he has not been so joined, the court shall order that he be made a party. If he should join as a plaintiff but refuses to do so, he may be made a defendant. Notwithstanding subdivision A of this rule when a person described in subsection 1 or 2 thereof is not made a party, the court may treat the absent party as not indispensable and allow the action to proceed without him; or the court may treat such absent party as indispensable and dismiss the action if he is not subject to process.
In determining whether or not a party is indispensable the court in its discretion and in equity and good conscience shall consider the following factors:. Nonjoinder under this rule may be raised by motion as provided in Rule 12 B 7. This rule is subject to the provisions of Rule Joinder of all the parties to a joint and several obligation and to a joint obligation, including a partnership obligation, shall not be required, and joint or separate action may be brought against one or more of such obligors who shall be subject to permissive joinder as provided in Rule A judgment against fewer than all does not merge or bar the claim against those not made parties for that reason.
Joinder of the assignor or transferor of a claim or chose in action shall not be required in a suit by the assignee who establishes his title by appropriate pleading and proof, but such assignor or transferor shall be subject to permissive joinder as provided in Rule Any recovery by the subrogor to the extent that such recovery is owned by a subrogee shall be made as representative and trustee for the subrogee.
Suits by or against a governmental organization or governmental representative relating to the acts, power or authority of such organization or representative, including acts under purported power or authority or color thereof by such organization or representative, shall be governed by this provision. Suits naming a governmental representative by his official title or by his name along with his official title shall be deemed to name and include the governmental organization which he represents, and suits naming an unofficial branch, office or unit of a governmental organization shall be deemed to name and include the governmental organization of which it is a part; but the court upon its own motion or the motion of any party may require the omitted and proper governmental organization to be included at any time.
Failure to name, or improper naming of a governmental organization or a governmental representative shall be subject to the provisions of these rules relating to parties. When a governmental representative is named as a party in his individual name or in his individual name along with his official title, the judgment, in an appropriate case, may bind him in his individual capacity, but no judgment against him in his individual capacity shall be rendered against him unless he is so named. No action against a governmental organization or against a governmental representative in his official capacity shall be abated, affected or delayed because of the death, incapacity or replacement of a named or unnamed governmental representative, or because of the fact that the name, functions or existence of the governmental organization have been altered or terminated.
In either case the action shall proceed without substitution of successors who shall be bound by the judgment in their official capacity. A plaintiff or defendant need not be interested in obtaining or defending against all the relief demanded. Judgment may be given for one or more of the plaintiffs according to their respective rights to relief, and against one or more defendants according to their respective liabilities. Unwilling plaintiffs who could join under this rule may be joined by a plaintiff as defendants, and the defendant may make any persons who could be joined under this rule parties by alleging their interest therein with a prayer that their rights in the controversy be determined, along with any counterclaim or cross-claim against them, if any, as if they had been originally joined as parties.
The court may make such orders as will prevent a party from being embarrassed, delayed, or put to expense by the inclusion of a party against whom he asserts no claim and who asserts no claim against him, and may order separate trials of the entire case or separate issues therein, or make other orders to prevent delay or prejudice. Misjoinder of parties is not ground for dismissal of an action. Except as otherwise provided in these rules, failure to name another person as a party or include him in the action is not ground for dismissal; but such omission is subject to the right of such person to intervene or of an opposing party to name or include him in the action as permitted by these rules.
Subject to its sound discretion and on motion of any party or of its own initiative, the court may order parties dropped or added at any stage of the action and on such terms as are just and will avoid delay. Any claim against a party may be severed and proceeded with separately. Incorrect names and misnomers may be corrected by amendment under Rule 15 at any time.
The court shall have venue and authority over all persons or claims required to be joined or permissively joined, impleaded or included by intervention, interpleader, counterclaim or cross-claim if it has venue or is authorized to determine any claim asserted between any of the parties thereto, notwithstanding any requirement of venue or of jurisdiction over the subject-matter applicable to other claims or other parties. The court may transfer the proceedings to the proper court if it determines that venue or authority of the court is dependent upon a claim, or a claim by or against a particular party which appears from the pleadings, or proves to be a sham or made in bad faith; and if another action is pending in this state by or against a person upon the same claim at the time he becomes a party, the court may dismiss the action as to him, or in its sound discretion, it may order all or part of the proceedings to be consolidated with the first pending action.
Persons having claims against the plaintiff may be joined as defendants and required to interplead when their claims are such that the plaintiff is or may be exposed to double or multiple liability. It is not ground for objection to the joinder that the claims of the several claimants or the titles on which their claims depend do not have a common origin or are not identical but are adverse to and independent of one another, or that the plaintiff avers that he is not liable in whole or part to any or all of the claimants.
A defendant exposed to similar liability may obtain such interpleader by way of cross-claim or counterclaim. The provisions of this rule supplement and do not in any way limit the joinder of parties permitted in Rule This rule shall extend, but not diminish or reduce the right to interpleader provided by statute.
A complaint or answer seeking interpleader under Rule 22 A is sufficient if:. The complaint may also show, if such is the fact, that the person seeking interpleader has deposited with the court money, or property, or a bond securing performance. It also may include appropriate prayers for equitable relief, including injunction against other nonpending suits by the parties interpleaded, against the person seeking interpleader or among themselves. Except to the extent that the issues are raised by the pleadings of the person seeking interpleader, the claims of those interpleaded, whether dependent or independent, may be pleaded in the same manner as if the claims were counterclaims or cross-claims under Rule 13 and within the time as prescribed by Rule 6.
Incorrectness of the interpleader under Rule 22 A is grounds for dismissal as provided in Rule 12 B 6. New service against defaulting parties required by Rule 5 A shall not apply to the responsive pleadings filed by parties named to interpleader proceedings under Rule 22 A unless ordered by the court. At-rule at-rule-no-unknown : Disallow unknown at-rules. Comment comment-no-empty : Disallow empty comments. Limit language features Color color-named : Require where possible or disallow named colors.
Function function-blacklist : Specify a blacklist of disallowed functions. Keyframes keyframes-name-pattern : Specify a pattern for keyframe names. Number number-max-precision : Limit the number of decimal places allowed in numbers. Time time-min-milliseconds : Specify the minimum number of milliseconds for time values. Unit unit-blacklist : Specify a blacklist of disallowed units. Shorthand property shorthand-property-no-redundant-values : Disallow redundant values in shorthand properties Autofixable.
Value value-no-vendor-prefix : Disallow vendor prefixes for values. Custom property custom-property-pattern : Specify a pattern for custom properties. Property property-blacklist : Specify a blacklist of disallowed properties. Declaration declaration-block-no-redundant-longhand-properties : Disallow longhand properties that can be combined into one shorthand property.
Validation - Laravel - The PHP Framework For Web Artisans
Declaration block declaration-block-single-line-max-declarations : Limit the number of declarations within a single-line declaration block. Selector selector-attribute-operator-blacklist : Specify a blacklist of disallowed attribute operators. Media feature media-feature-name-blacklist : Specify a blacklist of disallowed media feature names. Custom media custom-media-pattern : Specify a pattern for custom media query names.
At-rule at-rule-blacklist : Specify a blacklist of disallowed at-rules. Comment comment-word-blacklist : Specify a blacklist of disallowed words within comments. Stylistic issues Color color-hex-case : Specify lowercase or uppercase for hex colors Autofixable. Font family font-family-name-quotes : Specify whether or not quotation marks should be used around font family names.
Font weight font-weight-notation : Require numeric or named where possible font-weight values. Also, when named values are expected, require only valid names. Function function-comma-newline-after : Require a newline or disallow whitespace after the commas of functions Autofixable. Number number-leading-zero : Require or disallow a leading zero for fractional numbers less than 1 Autofixable.
String string-quotes : Specify single or double quotes around strings Autofixable. Length length-zero-no-unit : Disallow units for zero lengths Autofixable. Unit unit-case : Specify lowercase or uppercase for units Autofixable. Value value-keyword-case : Specify lowercase or uppercase for keywords values Autofixable. Value list value-list-comma-newline-after : Require a newline or disallow whitespace after the commas of value lists Autofixable.
Custom property custom-property-empty-line-before : Require or disallow an empty line before custom properties Autofixable.