In addition, the minister to France also played a major role when hiring foreigners. This text is a report from the Iwakura Mission which departed on an inspection tour of various western countries in November of The author, KUME Kunitake , was a scholar of Chinese studies from the Saga Domain, participated in the mission as an attache, and focused on the editing of this text after returning in September of Widely publicizing the dispatch of the mission and the knowledge gained, was done based on the suggestion of the hired foreigner Guido Herman Fridolin Verbeck The mission visited a number of countries, starting in the United States and succeeding Britain, France, Germany and Russia, and this text, which records in detail writings and copperplate prints about each country, was considered an encyclopedic work.
Regarding France, the work records information in brief, but from a wide variety of fields, including industrial facilities like the Manufacture nationale de Sevres and bread factories, to cultural facilities such as the Bibliotheque nationale de France, to welfare facilities such as schools for the blind.
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The section of review articles on each country notes, "France is the country in which civilization is most advanced in Europe, with a variety of products distributed and is an origin point for fashions and styles. The letter was written a little more than 40 days after the arrival in France, however there are no particular references to observations or experiences within France, differing greatly from KUME's Bei? The purpose of the mission was not only to survey of US and European systems, but also to carry out diplomatic negotiations on the revision of the unequal treaties.
These materials are from the point at which negotiations had been carried out with the US, Britain and France, and show that of the freedom of religious faith and freedom of movement of foreigners within Japan, ITO saw the latter as an issue of concern to Japan. The first letter is dated December 20, and it reports that the mission has departed Britain and safely arrived in France.
The 2nd letter is dated January 20, , at a point when the mission had already exceeded its planned trip overseas, and reports that the missions return could not be sped up and that KIDO Takayoshi and OKUBO Toshimichi could not return early ahead of the rest of the mission without any special pretext. In addition to the letters introduced here, there were also letters frequently sent by IWAKURA to SANJO from the mission's departure in November onward, providing a view of the decision making process between the mission and the temporary government.
After arriving in Paris, together with British attorney Frederic Marshall , who was hired as a secretary and clerk to assist with diplomatic duties, SAMESHIMA compiled basic knowledge on European diplomatic customs and foreign affairs, and published it under the name of the Japanese Legation in Paris for successive Japanese diplomats.
Only copies of this text were published, so it was not made generally available. These materials are letters of thanks for donated works. Togather with works which was purchased by the Tokyo Shojaku-kan, the total number is more than works. The majority of these texts were in English or French, including dedicated copies from Marshall who cooperated in the editing of the Diplomatic Guide and Boissonade.
This is a report that the government secretariat at the time of participation in the Paris International Exposition created after the completion of the exhibition.
Programme and Tickets - Opéra national de Paris
This was the third time the post Meiji Restoration Japanese government participated in the International Exhibition after Vienna and Philadelphia , and it seemed that the secretariat felt that this occasion garnered the best response to date. However, upon arriving in New York, he found that Graves had only 5 additional ships of the line that were fit for battle. On August 29 , de Grasse had arrived at the Chesapeake with a French fleet that included 27 ships of the line and also carried 3 regiments of regular troops under General Marquis de Saint-Simon.
Thus, the British had already made two fatal mistakes: they had failed to track the movements of the French fleet, and they had badly underestimated its strength and sent an inadequate force to deal with the threat.
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Taking command of the combined fleet, now 19 ships, Graves sailed south, and arrived at the mouth of the Chesapeake on September 5. His progress was slow; the poor condition of some of the West Indies ships necessitated repairs en route. Graves was also concerned about some ships in his own fleet; Europe in particular had difficulty maneuvering. They found 24 French ships at anchor behind Cape Henry. With the wind and tide in their favor as well as the element of surprise in finding the French ships at anchor in a state of unpreparedness for battle, the British might have been able to inflict severe losses by sailing into the bay and striking quickly in a general attack.
However, it is unlikely that such an idea ever occurred to Graves. Conventional naval tactics of the time called for the fleets to each form up in line of battle and then maneuver within gun shot range of each other, each ship attacking its opposite in the enemy line. Forming up the British line took so much time that the French were able to cut their anchors, sail out of Chesapeake Bay, and form their own line of battle.
It was after P. At this point, both fleets were sailing generally east, away from the bay. The two lines were approaching at an angle so that the leading ships of the vans of both lines were within range of each other, but the ships behind them were still attempting to close the gap. A shift in wind direction during the battle made it even harder for the ships in the rear to engage. Thus the ships in the van on both sides were engaged in heavy and continuous firing from the beginning of the action, while several of the ships in the rear never got into action at all. Around P. Graves gave a general signal to keep to windward so that the heads of the two fleets separated.
By this time, the British ships in the van division that had borne the brunt of the battle were very badly damaged and unable to continue to fight effectively in any case. On September 5 , the actual battle ended at sunset, but for several days afterwards the 2 fleets continued to maneuver within sight of each other, as ships on both sides carried out repairs and waited for an opportunity to resume the fight.
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In the meantime, both fleets were sailing farther and farther away from Chesapeake Bay, their strategic objective. That evening Graves did a damage assessment. Ongoing repairs made it clear to Graves that he would be unable to attack the next day. On the night of September 6 , he held council with Hood and Drake.
During this meeting Hood and Graves supposedly exchanged words concerning the conflicting signals, and Hood proposed turning the fleet around to make for the Chesapeake. Graves rejected the plan, and the fleets continued to drift eastward, away from Cornwallis.
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On September , the French fleet at times gained the advantage of the wind, and briefly threatened the British with renewed action. Arriving on September 12 , he found that Barras had arrived two days earlier. The news of the defeat was also not received well in London. The French success left them firmly in control of Chesapeake Bay, completing the encirclement of Cornwallis. On October 19 , after effecting repairs in New York, Admiral Graves sailed from New York with 25 ships of the line and transports carrying 7, troops to relieve Cornwallis.
It was two days after Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown.